Analyze Italian Students' Perception Of Inclusion In Secondary Schools: Validation Of The Perception Of Inclusion Questionnaire (PIQ) In The Italian Context


  • Davide Di Palma University of Naples "Parthenope"



Emotional well-being, social inclusion, and academic self-concept are fundamental elements in the academic and socio-emotional advancement of students, deemed pivotal for successful integration. Recognizing the significance of these facets, the Perception of Inclusion Questionnaire (PIQ) was devised as a succinct screening instrument to evaluate these dimensions, not solely for research objectives but also to aid educators in enhancing students' well-being and identifying intervention goals. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the psychometric characteristics of the Italian adaptation of the PIQ among students. The cohort comprised 673 Italian middle school students (52% female, mean age = 13.25 years) enrolled in either integrated classes (33%) or specialized institutions (67%). Additionally, 15% of the participants had been diagnosed with special educational requirements (SEN). The scrutiny was centered on the factorial and convergent validity of the metrics, alongside the consistency of the scales. Moreover, mean distinctions based on student gender, SEN identification, and educational setting were scrutinized. The outcomes affirmed the tripartite framework of the PIQ and exhibited satisfactory internal reliability for the three dimensions (i.e., emotional well-being, social inclusion, and academic self-concept). Furthermore, there existed certain indications supporting convergent validity. Robust measurement invariance was confirmed, permitting comparisons across genders, SEN status, and scholastic milieu. Concerning gender discrepancies, males exhibited elevated levels of social inclusion and academic self-concept relative to females. Pupils with disabilities attained lower scores across all three subdomains compared to their nondisabled counterparts. Moreover, learners with special educational needs in inclusive settings demonstrated diminished levels of academic self-concept in comparison to those in specialized institutions. While additional inquiry is warranted, the psychometric attributes of the Italian version of the PIQ for students appear promising due to its potential value in both scholarly investigations and practical applications.

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Di Palma, D. (2024). Analyze Italian Students’ Perception Of Inclusion In Secondary Schools: Validation Of The Perception Of Inclusion Questionnaire (PIQ) In The Italian Context. Journal of Inclusive Methodology and Technology in Learning and Teaching, 4(2).

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